The meaning of quality is complex and has a long way to go before being included in economic and social life. Take as a starting point some of its definitions:
According to J. M. Juran (1993). Quality is the set of features that meets the needs of customers, and quality is not to be deficient. Quality is the “suitability for the use satisfying the customer needs.”
P. Crosby (1996). It is the fulfillment of standards and precise requirements.
E.W. Deming (1988). It is the predictable degree of uniformity and reliability at a low cost that meets market needs. Quality is nothing more than “a series of questions towards continuous improvement.”
AV Feigenbaum (1991) You must start with product design and end only when it is in the hands of a satisfied consumer.
Kaoru Ishikawa (1988) To develop, design, manufacture and maintain a quality product that is most economical, useful and always satisfying for the consumer.
Roger Schrolder G. (1992): Quality is to include zero defects, continuous improvement and high customer focus. Each person defines quality with its accessories.
Harrington J (1990): Quality is meeting or exceeding customer expectations at a price you can handle.
A. Parasuraman, B. Zeithaml, and L. Berry (1985, 1988): Quality is the discrepancy between the expected and the perceived.
L. Berry (1988), “Quality is a service issue; this means quality must be forethought, not an afterthought. It must be a way of thinking that influences every step of the development of new services, new policies, new technologies and new facilities.
Ernesto Che Guevara (1963) “The quality is respect for the people.”
NC / ISO9000: 2005. It is the degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfills requirements.
To achieve quality, we must meet the requirements demanded by the client, prioritizing effectiveness in achieving that goal as efficiently as possible and effective management of the organization will be reached (Valls, 2007).
Analyzing the concept of quality that the above authors express, we can conclude that there are common elements related to: needs, expectations, market and customer satisfaction; both explicitly and implicitly, so the quality of a product is determined only by those features that the client defines. The diversity of opinion is justified by: the complexity and scope of this category.
Complexity of quality category. (WYVOS, 2004)
It is given by the different characters of this category:
- Dual character. You do not act the same when you are a supplier as when you are a customer; it is easier to receive than to give.
- Subjective and variable character. The perception of clients in the same product may be different, due to: the individual judgment of each customer, the service offered by different suppliers, and the same provider over time.
- Dynamic character. The needs and expectations of customers change over time, constantly varying (more demanding customers are informed and knowledgeable).
- Participatory and comprehensive character. It involves everyone in an organization and covers all stages of the life cycle of the product quality.
- Economic character. Quality is the most important indicator to measure the efficiency of any organization, and this translates in terms of: risks, costs and benefits.